Major MARTA Expansion Could Transform the Atlanta Region

MARTA officials have proposed new, high-capacity service into North Fulton County and east into DeKalb County that could link important job centers by rail for the first time. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution says it could “change the face of Atlanta.”MARTARailMapPropExpansionProjects_071715-01

The new rail service would finally connect residential areas to the rapidly growing area encompassing Emory University and the Centers for Disease Control, just east of the city limits. It would also extend all the way north to Alpharetta, a booming business center 25 miles north of Atlanta in Fulton County.

Officials from Cobb County, just west of Fulton, have long resisted and even ridiculed the idea of bringing transit access there, and Gwinnett County to the east is too low-slung and suburban to consider rail service at this point. But Fulton’s charge ahead into a more urban future could cause its neighbors to reconsider their ways.

MARTA Board Chair Robbie Ashe says the transit expansion could propel a new model of growth in the region. “Corporations are increasingly demanding immediate proximity to transit stations,” Ashe told the AJC. “State Farm did it when they came here. Mercedes did it. Worldpay did it when it relocated. Kaiser is going to be located two blocks from here because of the Arts Center Station.”

Best of all, according to Darin Givens who blogs at ATL Urbanist, these new stations, even the ones far out in the suburbs, are likely to be surrounded by transit-oriented development rather than park-n-rides.

“MARTA has now accepted that it’s time to undo its park-n-rides,” Givens said. “They’re trying to turn all these park-n-ride lots around MARTA stations — around a lot of them — into transit-oriented development.”
The agency hasn’t released any proposals for developing the areas near the new stations, but Givens is hopeful that they’ll be surrounded by walkable, mixed-use development. “MARTA leadership understands that the way of the future for MARTA, and for Atlanta, is to build in a new way around these MARTA stations that allows people to walk to them,” he said.

The agency would need Fulton, DeKalb, and Clayton counties to agree to a half-penny sales tax to fund the expansion. The counties already have state permission to ask residents to tax themselves, but only for five years. MARTA is petitioning the state to allow a much longer sunset of 42 years. They’ll also need special permission for the revenues to be directed to the transit agency.

It’s unclear why Clayton would be taxed. The county doesn’t get any new service in the most recent proposal and it just approved a full-penny sales tax last fall to be included in the MARTA network for the first time.

The Image That Explains It All

You’ve seen photos like this. A large group of people, with images comparing the amount of precious urban space they take depending on the mode of transport they use.  This new one is by Australia’s Cycling Promotion Fund.

6a00d83454714d69e2017d3c37d8ac970c-800wiThis photo makes at least three important points, two of them probably not intended. In this one image you can see that:

  • Bike racks on buses (and most other transit) can never be more than a niche market.

The rack on the bus in pic #1 carries two bikes, which is great for those two people. But if all the bikes in pic #2 try to get onto the bus in pic #1, we have a geometric impossibility. Bike racks are already as large as they can be if the driver is still to be far enough forward to drive safely. A non-folding bike inside a transit vehicle takes the space of several passengers, so could fairly be accommodated only at several times the fare. In the ideal sustainable future, you will have to park your bike at the station, or return your rental bike, just as Europeans do. If transit does accommodate your bike, you really should pay a fare premium that reflects the rough number of passenger spaces displaced, or the supply/demand ratio for 2-3 bike racks vs 20 people wanting to use them.
“Personal Rapid Transit,” or small demand-responsive buses, or driverless cars that work like taxis, will never, ever, ever substitute for surface transit in high-demand urban settings, such as where all these people want to travel.
Dreamers along these lines may well be right about many suburban areas, where demand is sparse and the land use pattern precludes efficient transit. But when all the people in this picture want to travel, driverless cars may take less space than the cars shown here, but they will still take far more space than a bus would. The scarcity of space per person is part of the very definition of a city, as distinct from suburbia or rural area, so the efficiency with which transport options use that space will always be the paramount issue.

(Of course, this very thought experiment presumes that we will actually achieve, and culturally accept, driverless cars that require very little space between them, in which the prevention of ghastly accidents — especially with pedestrians and bikes who may appear with zero warning and minimal stopping distance — is achieved through the absolute infallibility of human-designed hardware and software.)

To make the same point more generally:

In cities, urban space is the ultimate currency.
We spend too much time talking about what things cost in dollars and not enough about what they cost in space. That, of course, is because urban space is perversely priced to encourage inefficient uses of it and discourage efficient ones. If you’re going to claim to be able to visualize how technology will change the world of 2040 — as the techno-futurists claim to do — you should also visualize what a political system ruled by people now under 40 would look like. These people are much less emotionally attached to cars, care about environmental outcomes much more, and value urban space much more than their parents do. Given that the revolution in urban pricing has already begun (see the London and Singapore congestion charges, and the San Francisco and Auckland dynamic parking systems), isn’t it foolish to assume that today’s assumptions about how we apportion urban space will still rule your techno-utopia?

Original article publish by Human Transit.

America Could Have Been Building Protected Bike Lanes for the Last 40 Years


The latest in bikeway design? Nope, these intersection treatments are from early American bikeway planning documents. Sources: Fisher, 1972; City of Davis, 1972; Smith, Jr. 1974

Salt Lake City is on track to implement the nation’s first “protected intersection” — a Dutch-inspired design to minimize conflicts between cyclists and drivers at crossings. For American cities, this treatment feels like the cutting edge, but a look back at the history of bike planning in the United States reveals that even here, this idea is far from new. In fact, the protected intersection concept appeared in every foundational document for bike planning in the early 1970s. But no American city ever installed one until now — here’s why.

First, some background. The first modern on-street bike lanes in the United States were installed in Davis, California, in the fall of 1967. Of these three bike lanes, one was a parking-protected bikeway on Sycamore Drive. That’s right: The first on-street bike lane in the United States was a parking-protected bikeway.

As word of the Davis bike lanes spread across the country, cities all over the United States began improvising their own designs. In response, the Federal Highway Administration funded the publication of four key planning documents between 1972 and 1976 that provided diagrams and guidelines to help cities (and ultimately the FHWA) create a uniform design for bikeways. There are many similarities in all of these documents, but it is clear that with each subsequent report, the design of on-street bike lanes slowly drifted toward designs that treated the cyclist more like a motor vehicle than a human.

Just as the bikeways movement was gaining steam and formalization was taking shape, physically separated bikeways were challenged by a new movement of vehicular cycling advocates — many of whom still challenge bikeways today. Throughout the 1970s, these fit men who self-identified as “cyclists” attended meeting after meeting to decry the designs that engineers were supposedly building for them. Quibbles in the wording of laws or details of a design became arguments and headaches for city staff. Anyone who was not already riding a bicycle on busy car-dominated streets was drowned out by the vehicular cyclists who claimed to speak for all bicycle riders.

Read full article here.

A Case Study in Bike-Friendly Suburban Planning

Original article publish by City Lab.

What the misguided war between cars and bikes often misses is that it’s perfectly possible for both to coexist in peace—even in the suburbs. Such inter-modal harmony is happening right now in a Dutch town called Houten.

Located about five miles from the city of Utrecht, Houten and its adjacent sister town of South Houten are home to nearly 50,000 residents. In some ways Houten is a typical suburb. The neighborhoods are filled with low-density homes, a fair number of residents own cars (415 autos per 1,000 locals, with 36 percent of households having at least two cars), and on average there’s even more than one parking space per person.

But in many more ways, Houten is anything but typical. Car traffic is primarily resigned to a “ring road” that encircles the area. Within that ring is a network of low-speed streets meant primarily for people traveling on foot or by bike (there are 80 miles of bicycle paths alone) that connect to two main intercity train stations and most of the area’s schools and shops. As a result, car trips are the minority in Houten, with an estimated 66 percent made by alternative modes.

Cars keep to the perimeter, not the core

In the late 1960s, Dutch officials recognized Houten—then a tiny village of a few thousand—as a potential area for major population growth. An architect named Rob Derks came up with a town plan that prioritized pedestrians and cyclists over cars. Construction began in 1978 and was finished a few years later, and when more growth was predicted in the 1990s, the area replicated itself into South Houten.

(These and other Houten details come courtesy of a fantastic 2014 summary report of the area by Nicole Foletta of ITDP Europe.)

Houten’s local mixed-use street network has a low speed limit (~18 mph) and gives travel priority to walkers and cyclists. Plenty of streets and paths are off-limits to cars—some are physically blocked by bollards. The bike paths in the extensive cycling network have their own brick red coloring. Where bike routes do cross the ring roads, underpasses separate bike and car traffic. On average, Houten residents own more than three bikes per household.

Map of HoutenA March 2014 map of Houten shows the ring roads encircling the main residential and commercial areas. (Wiki Commons/Janwillemvanaalst)
In addition to homes, the core areas are loaded with shops, plazas, and jobs—many of them adjacent to one of the two train stations. No one lives more than a mile and a quarter from a train, and a majority of Houten residents live within a mile of a grocery store. That makes it easy to do most of life’s daily chores without a car. The biggest transportation problems that locals face are bike parking, speeding mopeds, and “uncollected dog poop.”

The mobility breakdown validates the design. Plenty of people still drive; the car commute share is over 50 percent in Houten and South Houten alike. But the vast majority of shopping or social trips are made without a car. And cycling and walking together account for 55 percent of total Houten travel, with public transit making up another 11 percent.

“Houten—it is a suburb,” says Furth. “This is what’s incredible. It is a suburb. Where you’d expect a really high car share.”
A major of non-work trips in Houten are made without a car. (ITDP Europe)
Could Houten ever work in America?

A Love-Hate Relationship With the Recession Teaches Life-Long Lessons

By Heather Alhadeff

My incessantly analytical brain is ruled by logic. So, to me it just made sense — evolve or die on the proverbial vine. It did take me a while, however, to realize I was hating the very thing I should love.R

This incredibly distressing recession required me to question all assumptions. In so doing, it prompted me to launch my own business, doing the work I love while creating more time for friends and family.

For me, it started with the 2008 housing crash at the same time I started working from home on my furloughed “days off.” I along with thousands of other public sector employees were hoping for a 2 percent a cost of living increase only to be greeted by the equivalent of a 10 percent pay cut and fewer hands to help.

That year began the most serious housing related financial set back I will likely ever endure. For the first time in my life, my incredibly optimistic family couldn’t even say “chin up” or “it’ll be OK.”

With a seemingly distorted outlook, I can say this housing crisis has resulted in a better future for me. Given that inheritance or savings are not available as a stepping-stone, the loss of equity and credit could have been debilitating. Or, it could become a life altering way to force me to position problems and ideas in a new light.

Fast forward to lucky 2013, and today I hear very different comments. “Wow, you are so brave.” “You know, I have always wanted to do that….” “Why start an urban planning business now?” “What do you see in the future that grants you such positive outlook?”

These are the most common reactions I have been receiving from friends and colleagues since my December announcement of my small, woman-owned business. It’s true, now I am officially more creative and open to consider new ideas that many dismissively label as risks.

I believe there are two types of reasons I made the leap. One is due to key changes in the workplace (technology, reduced competition, and change in project types) and the other is a shift in fears related to freelance work (lack of job security and reduced benefits).

Not so long ago, computers were predominantly found in the office. Now with mobile technology, Ultrabooks and iPads you don’t have to sit at the same desk to get your work done. Smaller, cheaper, and more enhanced computing capabilities enable people to work from anywhere at any time. In fact, in the private sector I frequently work with planners and architects of the same project team whose desks are thousands of miles away in different time zones.

With the closure and buy-outs of many small and medium level firms, the recession has actually reduced the number of firms competing. And with reduced budgets, one may presume that fewer projects mean more competition. However, it seems that there are more projects of a smaller scale. That bodes well for smaller companies in an environment that calls for teams consisting of individuals from different companies that have less overhead costs.

Larger firms often don’t pursue projects that fall under a certain financial threshold. The biggest firms offer clients an ideal abundance of people power and service lines from around their global offices. However, they are not as nimble. Being large means you have to spend 10 hours getting permission to borrow a staff person for eight hours of work. Simply put, there are numerous firms that are not as fiscally agile due to the nature of their size.

Project types have evolved with reduced budgets too. The plans and projects that are moving forward demand professionals that can handle more complex, urban or suburban retrofit projects or programs. Niche services are in greater demand.

In essence, effective planning requires the science of macro level solutions applied at a micro level. It also requires the art of intrinsically knowing local realities. Smaller and medium size firms frequently have more “local” or ground level planners who are more apt to know the site-specific issues and politics. Those skills can’t be learned in a classroom or from your corporate office in another state.

In a twist of irony, freelance work no longer takes the cake in conjuring fears of reduced job security and benefits. In fact, it seems that same low-grade fear is on the minds of many “regular” employees. Many companies and public sector agencies have been forced to cut people in high-level positions or those that seemed untouchable with 20-plus years of service.

The rise in healthcare costs and reduced pensions has literally reversed decades of expected benefits. Employees are now paying more social security and a higher ratio of healthcare costs, while individual healthcare options are on the rise. Suddenly, from an income perspective, “regular” company jobs don’t seem less risky than freelance work.

My main lesson learned is not about how to struggle through a recession. Rather, it’s how to open your eyes and think differently. The recession’s punch is packed with life-long lessons that will continue to make me more resourceful than any salary increase could have accomplished.

MARTA Present Route To Avondale Station

MARTA has scheduled two meetings in early December to enable the public tolearn about, and comment on, plans to advance the proposed light rail line that’s to stretch from the Lindbergh Station, through the Clifton Road corridor, to the Avondale Station.

Lihgt rail

The proposed light rail line that would serve the Emory University area has been discussed for nearly 20 years.

The general concept is to create a transit option for commuters from the Lindbergh Station to the Avondale Station. One of two options includes a tunnel and above-ground structure. The other does not include the tunnel.

The route was to have been funded with proceeds of the transportation sales tax that was on the ballot in 2012. Although voters rejected the proposed 1 percent sales tax, advocates of the “Clifton Road corridor” transit route have continued to foster the project.

The state Legislature is expected to revisit in the transportation funding issue during the 2015 session. Any measure is likely to take two years to win approval, which means a funding mechanism could be in place with the environmental impact study of the Clifton Road route is complete, in 2015 or 2016.light rail

Some lawmakers are discussing an increase in the statewide motor fuel tax. Another proposal would enable a few counties to unite to propose a transportation referendum, rather than the 10 counties that were involved in the 2012 referendum.

Meeting details:
Dec. 4: Westminster Presbyterian Church, 1438 Sheridan Rd. NE., Atlanta, GA 30324
Dec. 9: Emory University Student Activity and Academic Center (SAAC), Room 316,1946 Starvine Way, Decatur, GA 30033.

– See full aritcle By David Pendered here.

Salt Lake City Transit Success Story

Story originally publish here.

Efficiency and effectiveness are the hallmark of award-winning Utah Transit Authority.

download (1)Now that its FrontLines 2015 program, a group of five Utah Transit Authority rail projects that added 70 miles to the existing 64-mile rail network, has been completed $300 million under budget and two years ahead of schedule, UTA’s main focus is on increasing frequency of service and better connections. And it’s well on its way.

UTA says its ridership growth more than doubled compared to the national average in 2014—2.17% vs. 0.95% the previous year. Ridership on its FrontRunner regional rail service increased by 15%. Overall, UTA saw a record ridership with more than 45 million boardings in 2014. UTA attributes this success, in part, to last year being the first full year of operation for new rail lines opened under FrontLines 2015, as well as its S-Line streetcar in the Sugarhouse neighborhood, which opened in December 2013.

Projects under FrontLines 2015 included the Mid-Jordan TRAX Line (light rail), running through Murray, Midvale, West Jordan and South Jordan; West Valley City TRAX Line, running from South Salt Lake and West Valley City; Draper TRAX Line, extending current light rail service through Sandy and Draper; Airport TRAX Line, running from downtown Salt Lake City to Salt Lake City International Airport; and the FrontRunner Provo to Salt Lake City Line, offering regional/commuter rail service between downtown Salt Lake City and Provo.

UTA’s record year of ridership led to the agency receiving one of the biggest awards in the public transportation industry in 2014 for its service and effectiveness. The American Public Transportation Association (APTA) named UTA the Outstanding Transportation System of 2014.

“This is a great honor that would not have been possible without the dedication of UTA employees and the continued support of our riders,” said UTA General Manager Michael Allegra. “We’re pleased to be recognized for our accomplishments and confident that we’ll continue to grow, improve and provide efficient, innovative public transit for residents of the Watsatch Front.”

The Outstanding Transportation System award is given to organizations in the United States and Canada that have demonstrated efficiency and effectiveness and have made exceptional contributions to the public transportation industry. Three awards are given each year based on transit system size. UTA won the award in the largest category, for systems providing 20 million or more annual passenger trips.

Performance, growth and safety

In addition to increased ridership, UTA set a record in 2014 for on-time performance in both of its rail-oriented modes of transportation—94.57% in TRAX light rail and 92% in FrontRunner commuter rail. UTA is moving ahead on three transit-oriented developments (TOD). In 2014, the agency broke ground on the first two phases of the Sandy TOD; Jordan Valley TOD received approval from the board and West Jordan City for the site and development plan, as well as developer financing; and the Clearfield TOD received approval from the board and the city of site master plan. Design is under way.

“The building of transit oriented development is just one way the Wasatch Front can prepare for future growth,” said Allegra. “The combination of residential, retail and commercial properties with transit helps air quality, population growth and generally makes life better for those that live here. This is a new trend for our community and a catalyst for change.”

Last year, UTA says, it restructured its public safety department for increased outreach and better efficiency, leading to the agency’s best safety record to date, with zero fatalities on the system in 2014.

All modes were below their accident goals, including major accidents on TRAX, which were down 30%. UTA will introduce a number of service improvements that will take effect August 16, 2015. These changes include extended hours on TRAX and the S-Line and increased service on select bus routes.

“UTA has a long tradition of coming in under budget due to our capable staff operating in a lean and efficient manner,” Allegra said. “This year, we achieved enough savings that we are able to invest in service beyond what we had already planned for our upcoming change day.”

Integrated fare structure

In addition to service enhancements, UTA will once again offer FAREPAY discounts of up to 20% on TRAX and FrontRunner, and will add a new 40% FAREPAY discount for bus riders. UTA will also offer its popular $10 Group Pass, which allows up to four people to make a round trip on buses, TRAX and FrontRunner between 8:30 a.m. and midnight on the day of purchase. Both the FAREPAY promotion and the Group Pass special pricing will begin July 1 and run through Dec. 31. These fare promotions, UTA said, are designed to thank riders for 45 years of support and encourage them to take advantage of UTA’s new summer holiday schedule, as the agency now offers service on many holidays including Independence Day, Pioneer Day and Labor Day.

“This year, as we celebrate more than four decades of service, we wanted a way to say thank you to our riders,” Allegra said. “We hope FAREPAY promotion and our new Group Pass pricing make it more convenient for families and groups to ride UTA to events and celebrations taking place this summer.”

UTA implements service changes three times per year. The Aug. 16 change will extend TRAX Sunday hours of operation to match Saturday hours and extend S-Line hours of operation to match TRAX, seven days a week.

“As with its service changes, UTA staff continues to look for opportunities to introduce strategic fare products and promotions in response to emerging market opportunities and to introduce our services to new riders,” the agency said.

Good hosts

UTA has been chosen to host several major transportation conferences this year, including the APTA Rail Conference and International Rail Rodeo. The APTA event is expected to bring nearly 2,000 global transit representatives to Salt Lake City, showcasing the recently completed FrontLines 2015 rail expansion program and generating millions of dollars for the local economy, the agency said.

In addition to the APTA Rail Conference, UTA also hosted the Smart Card Alliance Payments Summit in February and the National Transit Institute Transit Academy in April, and will also be hosting the APTA Risk Management Seminar in June.

Allegra credits UTA’s outreach efforts for helping draw these visitors to the state. Over the past two years, UTA has invested $800,000 in travel to pursue numerous competitive funding opportunities, to learn best industry practices used by other transit agencies, and to take part in groundbreaking transit think tanks and seminars. Utah residents “see a return on that investment many times over,” Allegra said, in the form of money generated by conferences, federal transportation grants and cost-saving improvements to the UTA system.

UTA’s proactive outreach efforts have already helped secure discretionary federal funding used to expand the system and bring state-of-the art technology to the region. Over the past decade, UTA has received more than $1.7 billion in discretionary and formula federal grants. The agency was able to obtain $29 million in federal Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER) II funding to open the S-Line streetcar and help revitalize neighborhoods in South Salt Lake and Salt Lake City. In addition, two of UTA’s FrontLines 2015 projects, the Mid-Jordan TRAX Line and Draper TRAX Line, were built using more than $544 million in federal funds.

The World’s Best Cities for Bikes


What’s the world’s best city for cyclists?

Wonderful, wonderful Copenhagen.

That’s according to the urban design consulting firm Copenhagenize Design Co., based in Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam and Zurich.

The multinational company releases its Copenhagenize Index every two years to rank the most bike-friendly cities around the world.

For 2015, 122 cities were listed based on 13 categories—advocacy, bicycle culture, bicycle facilities, infrastructure, bike share programs, gender split, modal share for bicycles, modal share increase since 2006, safety, politics, social acceptance, urban planning and traffic.

The top 20 are:

Copenhagen, Denmark
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Utrecht, Netherlands
Strasbourg, France
Eindhoven, Netherlands
Malmo, Sweden
Nantes, France
Bordeaux, France
Antwerp, Belguim
Seville, Spain
Barcelona, Spain (Catalonia)
Berlin, Germany
Ljubljana, Slovenia
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dublin, Ireland
Vienna, Austria
Paris, France
Minneapolis, Minnesota
Hamburg, Germany
Montreal, Quebec
What does it take to get a top spot?

“You need serious advocacy, bike facilities, social acceptance, and a general perception that cycling is safe,” wrote Copenhagenize CEO Mikael Colville-Anderson in a Wired piece unveiling the list. “You get extra points for a higher modal percentage—the share of residents who get around by bike as opposed to car or public transit—and for a 50-50 gender split among cyclists. Of course, infrastructure is key.”

Copenhagen topped Amsterdam which had been the best city in the world in 2011 and 2013. Dublin and Montreal both fell in the standings while Minneapolis was the lone U.S. city named. New York, Portland and San Francisco had been on the Top 20 list previously.

According to the firm, the Danish capital remains impressively consistent in its investment in cycling as transport and in making efforts to push it to the next level. With regards to a uniform network of urban design for bicycles, Copenhagen is unrivaled in the world.

“A respectable bike share system is helping to cement the bicycle on the transport foundation of the city. Seeds have been planted and a garden is growing. America —often content with baby steps—is in desperate need of leadership cities and Minneapolis has emerged as a contender,” the report shared.

The U.S. does have promise. The Big Apple, Portland, San Francisco, Austin, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. and Chicago are in the Top 40.

Read full story here.

MARTA and Disadvantaged Business Enterprises

read original article here.

Beginning of April, Lara Hodgson, CEO and Founder of NOWaccount came by and brought experts from Atlanta’s mass transit authority and a WBE who’s worked with them to talk about MARTA and Disadvantaged Business Enterprises. Ferdinand Risco is the Executive Director for Marta’s Diversity and Equal Opportunity platform. This arm of MARTA focuses on engaging Atlanta’s disadvantaged business enterprises to provide them with opportunities to vie for contracts and sub-contracts to work with federally-funded projects around the community.

IMG_0465 (1)


Ferdinand shared that their goal for DBE participation is 30% of contracts awarded to this demographic of Atlanta’s business community. He talked about the fact that there are business opportunities on a broad spectrum of needs from basic office supplies to construction, planning, and other services. We talked about the online resources MARTA makes available to allow local business owners to easily review current and upcoming projects they could potentially participate in.

We also talked about the fact that business owners need to go through the effort to establish credit and corporate structuring to position themselves to be able to meet certification requirements for DBE status. Through partnerships with GMSDC and SBA, MARTA helps business owners have access to these often-free education and mentoring resources, as well as access to necessary resources such as working capital.

Lara shared information about NOWaccount’s recent partnering with MARTA to make their innovative capital solution available to the B2B community. This solution gives business owners access to their AR capital within 5 days or less for 2.5% of the total AR sold. In this way, NOWaccount gives B2B’s quick access to the capital they’ve already earned so they can add new staff, take larger orders, or purchase in bulk on discounts they wouldn’t be able to get otherwise.

Lara also introduced us to Heather Alhadeff, President of Center Forward, a transportation and land use planning firm based in Atlanta. Heather is so committed to the value of mass transit, she hasn’t owned a car in years. In addition to avoiding headaches associated with driving with Atlanta traffic, she also has gained first-hand experience of what users of our mass transit system experience. This affords her with insight to be able to recommend options that would improve on the experience and/or allows her to effectively engage community residents when discussing developments (growth or retraction) of mass transit, road systems, or urban land development.

We talked about why transportation is such a key element of urban or city planning, discussing examples of how mass transit availability can have unexpected impacts on such facets of our lives as healthcare delivery and other important functions.

Special Guests:

Ferdinand Risco, Executive Director of Diversity and Equal Opportunity,